เอนไซม์คืออะไร

posted on 09 Aug 2011 16:54 by enzyme501s in enzyme
 
เอนไซม์ (enzyme) คือ สารที่ทำหน้าที่เร่งปฏิกิริยาต่างๆในสิ่งมีชีวิต (biocatalyst)
ทำให้อัตราเร็วของปฏิกิริยานั้นๆเพิ่มสูงขึ้นได้ถึงหนึ่งล้านถึงล้านล้านเท่า (106-1012 )
ของปฏิกิริยาเดิมที่ไม่มีเอนไซม์เป็นตัวเร่ง หรือพูดอีกแบบหนึ่งว่าเอนไซม์ทำให้เกิดปฏิกิริยาได้รวดเร็วขึ้น
 สารที่เข้าทำปฏิกิริยาหรือสารตั้งต้นในปฏิกิริยาเรียกว่า ซับสเตรต (substrate)
จะเข้าจับหรือทำปฏิกิริยากับเอนไซม์แล้วได้ผลิตภัณฑ์ (product) ออกมา
 
 
 
เอนไซม์จะมีอยู่มากมายหลายชนิด และอยู่ในส่วนต่าง ๆ ของเซลล์ เช่น วมอยู่กับ 
ผนังเซลล์  เยื่อหุ้มเซลล์ ไรโบโซม และในไมโครบอดี้ส์ เป็นต้นโดยที่เอนไซม์แต่ละชนิดจะมีที่อยู่ที่แน่นอน
     ไม่รวมกับเอนไซม์ชนิดอื่น ๆ เช่น เอนไซม์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการสังเคราะห์แสงจะอยู่ภายในคลอโรพลาสต์
        เอนไซม์ที่ใช้ในการหายใจจะอยู่ในไมโตคอนเดรียและ
เอนไซม์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการสังเคราะห์ DNAและRNAจะอยู่ในนิวเคลียส
 
 
 
 
เอนไซม์หลายชนิดจะมีชื่อตามสารเริ่มต้น (Substrate) ลงท้ายด้วย -ase เช่น ฟอสฟาเตส (Phosphatase)
 และอไมเลส (Amylase) เป็นต้น แต่ก็มีเอนไซม์บางชนิดที่ชื่ออาจจะไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับสารเริ่มต้น
 เช่น คะตาเลส (Catalase)
 
 

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 19:09:25 by ENZYME.s

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 19:10:21 by ENZYME.s

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 19:14:10 by ENZYME.s

edit @ 13 Aug 2011 17:12:56 by ENZYME.s

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