ประเภทของเอนไซม์

posted on 09 Aug 2011 17:31 by enzyme501s in enzyme

      

เอนไซม์เป็นโปรตีนที่มีลักษณะเป็นก้อนกลมหรือ globular protein อาจจำนกตามองค์ประกอบทางเคมีได้เป็น 2 ประเภทดังต่อไปนี้
 

Simple protein หมายถึง เอนไซม์ที่สามารถทำงานได้ (มี biological activity) โดยไม่ต้องมีส่วนที่ไม่ใช่โปรตีน (nonprotein part) เข้ามาจับ ได้แก่ เอนไซม์ที่ทำหน้าที่เป็นน้ำย่อย เช่น amylase เป็นต้น
 

 

Conjugated  protein หรือโฮโลเอนไซม์ (holoenzyme) หมายถึง เอนไซม์ที่จะทำหน้าที่ได้ก็ต่อเมื่อต้องมีส่วนที่ไม่ใช่โปรตีนข้ามาจับ  เอนไซม์ประเภทนี้จึงประกอบด้วย 2 ส่วน คือ

1) เอนไซม์ที่ยังไม่สามารถทำงานได้ (apoenzyme)

2) ส่วนที่ไม่ใช่โปรตีน หรือโคแฟกเตอร์ (cofactor) มีหลายชนิดที่ควรรู้จัก ได้แก่

โคเอนไซม์ (coenzyme)  เป็นโมเลกุลสารอินทรีย์ (organic molecule) ที่มีขนาดเล็กเช่น

>>FAD (FLAVINADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE) ซึ่งเปลี่ยนแปลงมาจากวิตามินB₂

>>NAD (NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE)  ซึ่งเปลี่ยนแปลงมาจากวิตามินB₃

 ไอออนของโลหะ เช่น K⁺ , Mn⁺ , Mg⁺ , Ca⁺ หรือ Zn²⁺
 

โฮโลเอนไซม์ = อะโพเอนไซม์ + โคแฟคเตอร์ (ไอออนของโลหะ หรือ โคเอนไซม์)

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 17:45:46 by ENZYME.s

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 19:15:41 by ENZYME.s

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