เอนไซม์ประกอบด้วยวายของพอลิเพปไทด์ ที่มีการพับไปมาจนเกิดรูปร่างเพาะตัว 
และมีบริเวณเร่งสำหรับทำหน้าที่เข้าจับกับสารตั้งต้น  บริเวณนี้จะมีความจำเพาะเจาะจงกับสารตั้งต้น 
หากบริเวณเร่งของเอนไซม์จับกันพอดีกับสารตั้งต้น  สารตั้งต้นก็จะถูกเปลี่ยนไปเป็นผลิตภัณฑ์ 
ผลิตภัณฑ์จะหลุดออกจากเอนไซม์  เอนไซม์ก็จะสามารถเร่งปฏิกิริยาของสารตั้งต้นโมเลกุลอื่นๆต่อไป
 
 
ในการทำงานของเอนไซม์  โครงสร้างของเอนไซม์ทั้งก่อนละหลังการเกิดปฏิกิริยายังคงเหมือนเดิม
  ไม่มีการเปลี่ยนแปลง  แสดงว่าเอนไซม์ไม่ได้ทำปฏิกิริยากับสารตั้งต้น 
 แต่ขณะที่เกิดปฏิกิริยาเอนไซม์จะจับกับสารตั้งต้น  ทำให้สารตั้งต้นแปรสภาพไป 
โดยมีการสลายพันธะหรือมีการสร้างพันธะของสารตั้งต้นขึ้นมาใหม่เกิดเป็นผลิตภัณฑ์ของปฏิกิริยาเคมี
  สมมติฐานที่ใช้อธิบายกลไกการทำงานของเอนไซม์มีดังต่อไปนี้
 
 

แบบจำลองแม่กุญแจกับลูกกุญแจ (lock and key model) 

โดยอีมิล  ฟิชเชอร์ (Emil Fischer) ตามแนวความคิดแบบจำลองแม่กุญแจกับลูกกุญแจนั้น

เปรียบเอนไซม์เป็นเหมือนลูกกุญแจและสารตั้งต้นเปรียบเป็นแม่กุญแจซึ่งจะเกิดการเปลี่ยนแปลง

เมื่อไขด้วยลูกกุญแจ  โดยแม่กุญแจจะต้องมีรูปร่างพอเหมาะกับแอกทีฟไซด์ของลูกกุญแจเท่านั้น

 จึงจะรวมกับเอนไซม์และเกิดปฏิกิริยากลายเป็นผลิตภัณฑ์  นอกจากนี้เอนไซม์ยังสามารถเร่งปฏิกิริยาย้อนกลับได้ 

กล่าวคือ เอนไซม์เปลี่ยนสารตั้งต้นให้กลายเป็นผลิตภัณฑ์  และสามารถเปลี่ยนผลิตภัณฑ์ให้กลายเป็นสารตั้งต้นได้

 

 

ทฤษฎีเหนี่ยวนำให้เหมาะสม (Induced-fit  theory)

เสนอโดยคอชแลนด์ (Koshland) อธิบายว่าเมื่อสารตั้งต้นเข้าจับที่บริเวณเร่งของเอนไซม์จะเหนี่ยวนำให้
เอนไซม์เปลี่ยนโครงรูปให้เหมาะสม  ทำให้การจับกันระหว่างเอนไซม์กับสารตั้งต้นดีขึ้นและเกิดปฏิกิริยา
ได้ผลิตภัณฑ์ออกมา  นอกจากนี้ สารที่ไม่ใช่สารตั้งต้นแต่มีลักษณะคล้ายสารตั้งต้น 
 ก็สามารถเข้าจับที่บริเวณเร่งของเอนไซม์ได้  แต่ไม่สามารถชักนำให้เอนไซม์เปลี่ยนโครงรูปที่เหมาะสม 
 ทำให้ไม่เกิดปฏิกิริยาและไม่ได้ผลิตภัณฑ์  ซึ่งทฤษฎีนี้สามารถอธิบายได้กว้างกว่าทฤษฎีแรก
  เพราะแสดงถึงความยืดหยุ่นของเอนไซม์ที่บริเวณเร่ง

edit @ 9 Aug 2011 19:15:52 by ENZYME.s

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